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Nutrition Skepticism – Worry less and be healthy


Fact: strawberries are powerful myth producing agents because they’re pretty and taste really good.

Q: Why don’t I write much about nutrition?

A: I barely believe anything I read about it.

After spending the last decade with my head in the ‘health and fitness’ industry, I’ve developed a healthy skepticism – literally. It’s probably because I’ve seen so many fads come and go, myths busted, and contradictory research. Now, I take most of what I read with a grain of salt – and I’m probably healthier because of it.

Here’s why:

Don’t believe the hype

Most fads in the world of nutrition are based on pseudoscience, and not really supported by any solid research. They may be based on preliminary research, or an interesting observation in some basic science study, but they usually haven’t been tested by rigorous studies. And when they are, they usually don’t pan out. For example…


Anti-oxidants are an archetypal example, so we’ll discuss them the most. The supposed benefits of anti-oxidant rich foods were in vogue since my teenage years reading muscle magazines. That was back when I wanted big muscles and six-pack abs – before I discovered that I was much better at (and more interested in) making my body move in impressive ways, rather than look an impressive way. But I digress…

Chemical structure of Vitamin E - a common free radical. As a young idiot, I took pills of these.

Chemical structure of Vitamin E – a common free radical. As a young idiot, I took pills of these.

Anti-oxidant foods are supposed to neutralize “free radicals”. Free radicals are chemicals that naturally occur in your body, and are involved in some very important things – like killing infections and cleaning up by-products, and much more. However, they are also thought to be one of the things responsible for aging, and perhaps cancer. The idea is that free radicals can sometimes go a little too far in their clean up job. Kind of like how dad would throw out perfectly good cardboard for making crafts when you were a kid. Eating more anti-oxidants is thought to keep those pesky free radicals from going to far. Interesting theory, and sounds sciencey enough right?

Does eating more anti-oxidants actually work to prevent cancer? Unfortunately, after substantial research over the last few decades, the answer is a resounding no 1, 2, 3 (with the exception of vitamin D – maybe). 4, 5 In fact, many anti-oxidants that have been studied actually appear to slightly increase risk of death!

There are lots of potential reasons why things didn’t work out so well. For one thing, free radicals do important things (as mentioned) – so perhaps neutralizing them is a bad idea. 3 Secondly, maybe anti-oxidants are only good in small doses? Maybe too many of them actually do something harmful? As Dr. Ben Goldacre says “I think you’ll find it’s a bit more complicated than that”.

This isn’t new information either… studies like this have been around since the 90’s. 6, 7 One of the earliest studies even had to be stopped early because of the apparent harm it was causing. Interestingly, however, in that particular study, it turned out that the people who ate more vegetables  but did not take the anti-oxidants, actually did have lower rates of cancer. 8 Now that’s interesting.

Anti-inflammatory Foods

The value of anti-inflammatory foods (not to be confused with anti-oxidants) is a similar health food idea. Inflammation is an important biochemical process whereby your body fights infections and repairs damage. If you’ve ever rolled an ankle, you’ve known the effects of inflammation all too well when your ankle swells up! On a smaller scale, it’s also responsible for the redness around your pimples. Gross!

Inflammation is also highly associated with many chronic diseases. 9 For instance, it’s thought to cause atherosclerosis (leading to heart attacks and stroke), diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and more. Inflammation is thought to “trigger” auto-immune disorders (when the immune system essentially attacks normal things) like Multiple Sclerosis too. This is usually thought because inflammation blood levels are usually elevated in these conditions, and are associated with more severe disease states. Because of this association, inflammation is often targeted when treating everything from serious disease to minor injuries. You’ve probably heard of anti-inflammatory medications.


Nuts are anti-inflammatory? Bring on the truck loads!

As you might have guessed, the idea is that we should be eating foods that are shown to lower inflammation. Furthermore, “pro-inflammatory” chemicals in foods are to be avoided. I’ve seen people focus on specific components of a food to the point of absurdity. For example, I’ve seen claims that because omega-3 fatty acids are “anti-inflammatory” while omega-6’s are “pro-inflammatory”, foods like nuts which have a low ratio of omega-3’s to 6’s should be avoided. However, it turns out that nuts actually have a generally anti-inflammatory effect. 10 Turns out things are more complicated, as usual.

But does it even work? Do people who eat anti-inflammatory foods have lower instances of chronic diseases? Personally, I am not aware of any research that has established this definitively.

Furthermore, is lowering inflammation even a good idea? There are serious side effects to anti-inflammatory drugs, (read: Anti-Inflammatories) so why not foods as well? After all, aren’t we slowing down the natural healing process? Perhaps it’s harmful.

And one final point: even the association with chronic disease is being called into question. Is inflammation the cause, or consequence of disease? For instance, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an auto-immune, inflammatory disease of the nervous system. Recently however, researchers propose that MS is actually an auto-immune, degenerative disease. The increased inflammation seen during flare-ups may simply be due to the bodys effort to fight or recover from the disease, rather than causing it! 11

Medical science is now focusing it’s efforts on understanding the delicate balance of inflammation and how to optimize it, rather than simply fighting it. 9 Should we be trying to eat more anti-inflammatory foods? For now, I’m skeptical.

Natural and Organic

Whole, “real” or “natural” foods are often purported to be more healthful than processed foods. For the most part, this is probably true – packaged and processed foods are often unhealthy. Furthermore, it is also true that medications often have harmful side-effects.

However, it does not follow that you should eat only organic food, and take only “natural” remedies.

Let’s take organic foods for instance. In one of the most headlining research studies of 2012, a systematic review concluded that “the published literature lacks strong evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods”12 If you want to eat organic to avoid pesticides and antibiotics, or because you are protesting the conditions of factory farms, then I think you have a good argument. But if you say organic foods are “healthier” because they have more nutrients, you’re wrong!

What about “natural” or “herbal” supplements? Shouldn’t they be better than medications because they have less side effects? Maybe. However, that’s assuming these supplements actually work. While some remedies appear to be promising, the general consensus is that they lack quality research support. Furthermore, what research already exists isn’t impressive. Instead of listing references here, just go to the Cochrane library, click “browse reviews”, and search “herbal”, and read any of the summaries. There’s no miracle cures there.

And one last thing, herbal supplements are actually not side effect free. In fact, they’ve been shown to cause things like liver damage and hypertension. 13, 14

As usual, there’s no easy solutions here.

Fitness Fads and Nutrition Myths

It shouldn’t surprise you to know that the fitness industry has birthed a lot of myths. As a young male, I’ve fallen for many of these myths myself. “Bro-science” specifically refers to the non-sense you hear in gyms from people who gain their nutritional knowledge from bodybuilding magazines, websites, and that guy they know who is “jacked” (so he must know what he’s talking about). Then there are the fitness magazines aimed at women, with headlines like: “top ten foods that melt belly fat”. Everywhere you look on the internet, someone has some sort of nutrition tip or “fact”. How many are actually true? I’d suspect not many.

A recent study published in The New England Journal of Medicine reviewed myths, presumptions (unproven right or wrong), and facts about weight loss by simply searching the internet for frequent ideas, and then contrasting them with the available scientific evidence. 15 Here’s some of the things they found:

Myths about weight loss:

  • Small sustained changes produce big long term weight change.
  • You must lose weight slowly for long term success.
  • You must set realistic goals or you will get frustrated.
  • You must be “ready” mentally for change.
  • Sex burns 100-300 calories for each participant.

Presumptions (not proven right or wrong):

  • Regularly eating breakfast prevents obesity.
  • Eat more fruit and veggies will always cause you to lose weight.
  • Yo-yo dieting causes shorter life-spans.
  • Snacking causes weight gain.

Facts about weight loss:

  • Genetics are important, but not destiny.
  • Diets do work!
  • Physical activity helps.
  • Physical activity makes you healthier, weight loss or not.
  • Structured plans help.

Much of the conventional knowledge on weight loss would have you believing many of these myths, and rejecting the facts. As a physical therapist, I’m unavoidably surrounded by the fitness industry. Almost every day of my life I hear something to the effect of: “diets don’t work! Just eat more vegetables and go for a walk and you’ll lose weight!” (three myths in all in one statement). Fitness and weight loss is just not that simple.

Whenever I read a “diet tip” – I try not to let it sink into my brain. Some of them may be true – but if they are, I’ll probably see them again and again, with a credible source attached. I suggest you set the same standard.

Current Trends



The biggest trend in healthy eating right now is probably the “paleo” diet. For a long time, I was all about it. I thought it just made so much sense – eating like our ancestors must be the right way! And there is some evidence that gluten sensitivity may be more common than once thought. 16

However, after reading and thinking a lot more, I’ve realized that there is a lot wrong with paleo-diet reasoning. First of all, it’s one big “appeal to nature” logical fallacy. I won’t get into it here, but here’s some interesting blog posts that might be of interest to you: one from the Slate.com, and another from TakePart.com. Also read the “rationale” and “research” sections of the wikipedia article on the diet. I’m certainly not saying these are authoritative sources of information, but it’s important to realize that not everyone agrees to this current trend. In fact, there are some very good arguments against it.

Personally, I’m still waiting for definitive research. While it’s based on evolution – one of the most successful theories in biology – the paleo diet is not as scientific as it sounds. There still isn’t any large scale studies that I’m aware of. For now, I’m skeptical.


As you can see, nutrition is a complicated subject, and the public is generally misinformed.

And yet, almost daily, I see nonsense about “super foods” and “cancer fighting foods” that are “rich in anti-oxidants” on social and mainstream media. Even more frequent are the “fat burning foods” and diet tips that promise to make you look a particular way – “thin” for women and “shredded” for men.

Aside from simply being wrong, these myths can be dangerous. Furthermore, the frequency of health information in general may foster an obsession with diet and exercise that can lead to a negative body-image and/or potential eating disorders. 17, 18 And at the very least, it’s a stressful overload of contradictory and confusing information.

It’s much less stressful being skeptical. Trust me!


Don’t get me wrong – I’m not saying ignore healthy eating, or even information pertaining to it. I keep my ear to the ground and pay attention (to the best sources I can). I’m just very skeptical of everything now.

I wrote a quick and dirty blog post on “how to eat healthy“, which I’ll continue to edit and update as I learn more. However, you might notice that it’s vague. That was deliberate. My post is simply meant to be a list of simple, fundamental ideas that I currently believe.

If you really want to know more about nutrition, please talk to a registered Dietitian. Note that (at least where I live) Nutritionist is not a regulated term – anyone can call themselves a nutritionist. Dieticians are educated and licensed (which is probably why you don’t see many dieticians become “gurus” – they know better). Here’s a nice website from the Dietitians of Canada: 39 Popular Food and Nutrition Myths. Read and learn.

Eating more vegetables and watching your calories is not easy work, and sports nutrition to optimize your performance can be quite complicated. This is why it’s easy to get distracted by shortcuts, which leads to believing in myths and fads. Hopefully, you now understand that it’s much better to ignore information thats either too simple and/or sounds too good to be true. In fact, believing in such misinformation routinely turns out to be harmful.

Skepticism is healthy! Think critically.


ResearchBlogging.org1. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, & Gluud C (2012). Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online), 3 PMID: 22419320

2. Berger RG, Lunkenbein S, Ströhle A, Hahn A. Antioxidants in food: mere myth or magic medicine? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52(2):162-71. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2010.499481. Review. PubMed PMID: 22059961.

3. Watson J. Oxidants, antioxidants and the current incurability of metastatic cancers. Open Biol. 2013 Jan 8;3(1):120144. doi: 10.1098/rsob.120144. PubMed PMID: 23303309.

4. Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1586-91. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):794. PubMed PMID: 17556697.

5. Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, Whitfield K, Wetterslev J, Simonetti RG, Bjelakovic M, Gluud C. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD007470. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007470.pub2. Review. PubMed PMID: 21735411.

6. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 Apr 14;330(15):1029-35. PubMed PMID: 8127329.

7. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, Cullen MR, Glass A, Keogh JP, Meyskens FL Jr, Valanis B, Williams JH Jr, Barnhart S, Cherniack MG, Brodkin CA, Hammar S. Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Nov 6;88(21):1550-9. PubMed PMID: 8901853.

8. Neuhouser ML, Patterson RE, Thornquist MD, Omenn GS, King IB, Goodman GE. Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Apr;12(4):350-8. PubMed PMID: 12692110.

9. Tabas I, Glass CK. Anti-inflammatory therapy in chronic disease: challenges and opportunities. Science. 2013 Jan 11;339(6116):166-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1230720. Review. PubMed PMID: 23307734.

10. Salas-Salvadó J, Casas-Agustench P, Murphy MM, López-Uriarte P, Bulló M. The effect of nuts on inflammation. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:333-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 18296371.

11. Stys PK, Zamponi GW, van Minnen J, Geurts JJ. Will the real multiple sclerosis please stand up? Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 Jun 20;13(7):507-14. doi: 10.1038/nrn3275. Review. Erratum in: Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 Aug;13(8):597. PubMed PMID: 22714021.

12. Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, Bavinger JC, Pearson M, Eschbach PJ, Sundaram V, Liu H, Schirmer P, Stave C, Olkin I, & Bravata DM (2012). Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Annals of internal medicine, 157 (5), 348-66 PMID: 22944875

13. Stickel F, Kessebohm K, Weimann R, Seitz HK. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements. Liver Int. 2011 May;31(5):595-605. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02439.x. Epub 2011 Jan 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 21457433.

14. Jalili J, Askeroglu U, Alleyne B, Guyuron B. Herbal products that may contribute to hypertension. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Jan;131(1):168-73. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e318272f1bb. Review. PubMed PMID: 23271526.

15. Casazza K, Fontaine KR, Astrup A, Birch LL, Brown AW, Bohan Brown MM, Durant N, Dutton G, Foster EM, Heymsfield SB, McIver K, Mehta T, Menachemi N, Newby PK, Pate R, Rolls BJ, Sen B, Smith DL Jr, Thomas DM, & Allison DB (2013). Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. The New England journal of medicine, 368 (5), 446-54 PMID: 23363498

16. Carroccio A, Mansueto P, Iacono G, Soresi M, D’Alcamo A, Cavataio F, Brusca I, Florena AM, Ambrosiano G, Seidita A, Pirrone G, Rini GB. Non-celiac wheat sensitivity diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge: exploring a new clinical entity. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec;107(12):1898-906; quiz 1907. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.236. Epub 2012 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 22825366.

17. Guszkowska M. [Exercise dependence–symptoms and mechanisms]. Psychiatr Pol. 2012 Sep-Oct;46(5):845-56. Review. Polish. PubMed PMID: 23394023.

18. Grabe S, Ward LM, Hyde JS. The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychol Bull. 2008 May;134(3):460-76. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.134.3.460. PubMed PMID: 18444705.

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    17 Responses to Nutrition Skepticism – Worry less and be healthy

    1. Tim says:

      Just wanted to drop a little note for anyone who hasnt heard of it, and to also get your thoughts, Tony. I use the “my fitness pal” app for iPhone and I find it’s a great way to keep track of your goals, keep an eye on calorie intake and monitor your exercise.

    2. Laura says:

      Interesting post! I’m a very late adapter so I don’t usually get into any fads at all. A few interesting articles I’ve read recently that tie in with your post (links to news articles, not primary research):

      The first – they scanned a bunch of mummies from ancient times (as old as 3500 years) and found there was atherosclerosis in up to 25% of the bodies. Including severe, bypass-level disease in a 40 year old woman. Don’t think she was eating Big Macs, and was likely on a Paleo or similar diet.


      The second: a really great read on how “natural remedies” are not chemical free – they still include chemicals, just not ones that are rigorously safety tested and sold at uncontrolled doses. Really makes you question the absolute positivity people connect with the word “natural”.


      • Tony Ingram says:

        Hey Laura, thanks for reading! That mummy study was quoted in the article Meredith just mentioned below too. Very interesting indeed.

        Thanks for that article from the Slate. Very important information that people need to be aware of… I often see people defend ‘natural’ with conspiracy theories about ‘big pharma’ and the factory food industry. While I agree that shady things happen (and if people want to fight things like withheld data from pharmaceutical companies, go to alltrials.org and sign the petition), the idea that a bunch of scientists and doctors, who usually can’t agree about much at all, are somehow involved in some worldwide conspiracy to poison us all and sell us the antidotes, is really ridiculous.

        At the very least, people don’t realize it when they make the appeal to nature fallacy.

        Thanks again for the comments!


    3. Meredith says:

      Another good post questioning paleo is the new one from Science Based Medicine: http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/index.php/its-a-part-of-my-paleo-fantasy-its-a-part-of-my-paleo-dream/

    4. Good article and I think the overarching point is the need for evidence-based medicine. As a person living with Hepatitis C infection and an AIDS activist for over 23 years, I know that some dietary supplements can have some value in disease management. My own regimen has helped keep my bloodwork normalized for the most part and over the past couple of years, kept my Hep C load around 2000-3000 copies (very low).

      Part of that is managing the oxidative stress of inflammation arising from chronic infections. We do have some evidence to support this and understanding how different approaches work (or don’t) will help guide more rational use. Systems of medicine as found in China, India and Tibet also have had much to offer. That said, clearly drug therapies are critically important. In the context of HIV disease, antiretroviral therapy works very well–but also comes with attendant and specific side effects that again, to some degree, non-pharmaceutical measures may help to manage (e.g., Cannabis or acetylcarnitine, B12, alpha lipoic for neuropathy; probiotics and glutamine for gut function; fish oil and vitamin D3, etc.) I cannot wait for an all-oral, interferon- and ribavirin-free regimen to get rid of my unwanted guest!

      The PROBLEM in my view is the capitalist model of discovery and information development and treatment dissemination. Goldacre’s book, Bad Pharma, underscores the horrific shenanigans that inhibit our understanding of how drugs should be used. And the supplement industry also benefits from sales and manufactured hope. Greed unites both industries in their, often intentional, thwarting the intentions of good science and good medicine. We need to take that back from the merchants of greed and restore discovery and prescription to well-trained researchers and practitioners. The provenance of a therapy is only artificially divided between “pharmaceutical” and “alternative.”

      • Tony Ingram says:

        Thank you George for such a thoughtful and personal comment. A lot of great insight there. I read Goldacres ‘Bad Science’, and am waiting for ‘Bad Pharma’ in the mail – I really enjoy his writing. The divide I see between “pharmaceutical” and “alternative” is one of regulation, and perhaps evidence base, but either way it can be very vague in some cases. Surely there is a lot to learn from all points of view, especially as you outline here with your own nutritional and pharmaceutical regime. I think all opinions and beliefs aside, there is simply a need for more quality evidence (as you said), and in the interim, embracing uncertainty and not jumping to conclusions. Thanks for the balanced perspective.



    5. Al says:

      Hi Tony

      I am so glad I found your page. Really interesting view and i sort of agree.

      It is kind of hard to read through all the information out there and still being able to know the good from the bad. To me it even looks like everybody has a study nowadays that underlines or proofs there point.

      Interestingly I read this article yesterday from Rob Wolff which makes a valid point (maybe :)) aobut evidence based medicine. Maybe you find it interesting http://robbwolf.com/2013/03/15/evidence-based-medicine-fraud-double-standards-ignorance/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+RobbWolfThePaleoSolution+%28Robb+Wolf+%7C+The+Paleo+Solution+book+and+podcast+%7C+Paleolithic+nutrition%2C+intermittent+fasting%2C+and+fitness%29&utm_content=Google+International .

      I just recently started a blog about a healthy lifestyle myself to spread some of the good information in the german speaking world. It seems like all the good information is being produced in english and never makes its way to us.

      Keep up the good work and i make sure to drop by again.


      PS. Sorry for the huge Link there

      • Tony Ingram says:

        Hi Al,

        Thanks for the comment, and I am glad you sort of agree.

        Thanks for the link to Robb’s blog. However, I don’t believe he has a strong argument. As another commenter pointed out, he creates a bit of a straw-man with his double standard argument, and I’d point out the whole thing as a “tu quoque” logical fallacy. Just because “mainstream” medicine misses the mark sometimes doesn’t mean we shouldn’t set a high standard of evidence across the board of all medicine (and nutrition), alternative or not.

        Of course medicine often proceeds without a RCT here or there, but sometimes it’s not always needed – I don’t need an RCT to know a gunshot wound is fatal, or that closing a wound is a good idea. But with something far more vague, like diet, I think we should expect higher quality evidence. I hope you know what I mean.

        Commendations on making a blog in the german language. It’s true that English seems to dominate most of the internet, which is too bad. However, I will say that much genius research comes out of other language speaking nations, especially Germany! I’ve banged my head numerous times downloading what looks like a great research article only to find it’s written in German! It makes me ashamed to only speak one language!



    6. Tony, loved reading your blog for a while now & was really surprised (pleasantly) to find one on nutrition..
      Have you come across Weston. A. Price’s book – ‘Nutrition & Physical Degeneration’ before? Fantastic read – very old book, but classic & still very true!
      Think there’s far too much ‘pyramid selling'(Grrr!!!) or ‘one size fits all’ advice out there when it comes to nutrition & not enough ‘listening to our bodies’ or people teaching others to do just that.

      • Tony Ingram says:

        Thanks Malcolm! I heard of that book, back when I was pretty into the paleo diet. I haven’t read it though. I agree with you, too much selling. Sometimes I wonder how reliable listening to our bodies can be, but it sure is more important than diet-sellers allow. Whenever I’ve restricted my eating, I’ve “thought” I felt better – but then again, I always noticed my training suffer! That’s a pretty good example of the importance of listening to your body.

    7. Adam Meakins says:

      Hi Tony

      This is rubbish….

      You obviously haven’t heard of Liger Milk the latest and best nutritional supplement in the world ever http://preview.smashbrand.com/liger/html/liger.html#.UVmf8X-Ocnl.facebook


      As always, love your stuff really

      Stay cool and hang tough


    8. Kris says:

      You make a lot of great points in this article. I’m glad I found your site. For me, I just try to eat what I feel is healthy enough.

      • Tony Ingram says:

        Thanks Kris!

        Same with me at this point. I try to eat what makes me feel good. Of course, I’ve tried many “diets” over the years, and have learned what works for me through experience. It’s like a Bruce Lee approach to nutrition.

    9. bboy omar shalou says:

      how about in reproduction system

    10. Sonya says:

      Well stated!

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